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Monday, 19 March 2018

How to Reduce Building Construction Cost

#How to Reduce Building Construction Cost
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Areas from where cost can be reduced are:
o Reduce plinth area by using thinner wall concept.
o Use locally available material an innovative form like soil cement blocks in place of burnt brick.
o Use energy efficiency materials which consumes less energy like concrete block in place of burnt brick.
o Use environmentally friendly materials which are substitute for conventional building components like use R.C.C. Door and window frames in place of wooden frames.
o Preplan every component of a house and rationalize the design procedure for reducing the size of the component in the building.
o By planning each and every component of a house the wastage of materials due to demolition of the unplanned component of the house can be avoided.
o Each component of the house shall be checked whether if it’s necessary, if it is not necessary, then that component should not be used.
o Build smarter with space. Smaller house, multi-use spaces.

Friday, 16 March 2018


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How To Calculate Concrete Volume For Trapezoidal Footing:

A trapezoid is a combination of a cuboid and a truncated pyramid.
Trapezoidal footing = Cuboid + trancated pyramid.
So to calculate the volume of trapezoidal footing we need to calculate the volume of a cuboid and a truncated pyramid.
1. Volume of  Rectangular Cuboid = length x Breadth x Height = 3 x 2 x 0.3 = 1.8 m³
2. Volume of Truncated pyramid = 1/3 (A1 + A2 + √A1A2) x h
Where A1 = Area of the top base.
A2 = Area of bottom base.
A1 = 0.6 x 0.5 = 0.3 m²
A2 = 3 x 2 = 6 m²
Volume of truncated pyramid = 1/3(0.3 + 6 + √0.3×6) x 0.3 = 0.81 m³
Total volume of trapezoidal footing = Volume of Cuboid + Volume of Truncated pyramid
= 1.8 + 0.81 = 2.61 m³.

So total concrete volume for trapezoidal footing is 2.61 m³.

Thursday, 1 March 2018

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Development length and lap length are two important terms in reinforcement. But many of us get confused with the difference between development length and lap length. In our previous article we have already discussed what is development length of bars, today we will discuss what is lap length of bars.
During placing the steel in RC structure if the required length of a bar is not sufficiently available to make a design length then lapping is done. Lapping means overlapping of two bars side by side to achieve required design length.
Suppose, we need to build a 100 feet tall column. But practically 100 ft long bar is not available and it is also not possible to cage. Therefore we need to cut the bars in every second story. Now, we need to transfer the tension forces from one bar to the other at the location of discontinuity of bar. So we have to provide the second bar closed to the first bar that is discontinued and overlapping is to be done. The amount of overlapping between two bars is known as lap length.
In case of RCC structure, if the length of reinforcement bars need to be extended, splicing is used to join two reinforcement bars for transferring the forces to the joined bar

The lap length including anchorage value of hooks shall be
1. For flexural tension – Ld or 30d whichever is greater.
2. For direct tension – 2Ld or 30d whichever is greater.
The straight length of lapping shall not be less than 15d or 20 cm.
The lap length in compression shall be equivalent to the development length in compression computed but not less than 24d.
In case of bars having different diameter are to be spliced, the lap length is calculated on the basis of smaller diameter bar.
Lap splices should not be used for the bars having larger dia than 36 mm. In that case, welding should be done. But if welding is not practicable then lapping may be permitted for the bars larger than 36 mm dia. Additional spirals should be provided around the lapped bars.
Lap length in tension (for plain Grade-1 MS bar) including anchorage value is 58d. So eliminating the anchorage value the lap length = 58 – 2*9d = 40d
where 9d = hook allowance of bars up to 25 mm and k=2
Columns – 45d
Beams – 60d
Slabs -60d.
So if we need to lap 20 mm dia column bars, we have to provide a minimum lap of 45 * 20 = 900 mm.

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